In Peru , domestic violence against women has become a visible problem in the last years. Several studies in the field demonstrate this view. Also, records on Police Stations specialized in violence against women show worrying figures.
That situation poses concerns and challenges for the future of Peru . The UN considers that the violence against women is a barrier for the achievement of equality, development and peace. Also, that problem transgresses Human rights, and international organizations include it in the top of their agenda.
In Peru , there are approximately 80,000 cases of violence against women on an annual basis, but only 25,000 of them are reviewed by the Peruvian State . However, according to some NGOs, the number of these cases could be much higher.
In most of the cases, domestic violence against women is caused by their couple. However, economic and psychological dependency deters women for accusing men. Women are aware and recognize that they are living under a stressful situation, and their couples were sober when they attacked them.
One big issue related to this problem is the low percentage of statements women do in police stations for domestic violence. This could be explained by lack of knowledge of the legal framework and of legal procedures. A wild guess leads to say that 42% of women ask for help to somebody. And one (1) out of five (5) women goes to a Police Station to have a statement written.
It is important to keep in mind that homes are the first place where violence against women is generated. Most of the women that suffered domestic violence undergo sexual harassment as well. However, usually women do not make any statement for sexual harassment.
The Peruvian Ministery responsible for dealing with this problem is the Ministerio de la Mujer y el Desarrollo (Ministery for Women and Development). It has 38 specialized centers called Centros de Emergencia (emergency centers). These facilities give legal information, legal advice, and psychological support. Here, all the paper work for registering the impact of the violence is done.
The following statistics measures the degree violence against women affects Peruvian homes. These numbers show a big social problem and come from State sources. The Peruvian State , however, recognizes that its official figures do not show the actual situation. This is because the great majority of women do not make statements on Police Stations. For this reason, the Peruvian State fosters the participation of Non State Organizations (NGOs) to help women solve their problems.
In 2003, Police stations registered 28,000 cases of domestic violence and sexual harassment. Women account for 89.6% of those cases.
41% of women have sometime been pushed, hit or attacked physically by their husband or partner; 28% has been attacked by a person other than the husband or partner.
The Capital city of Peru , Lima , is the largest city of the country and concentrates 1/3 of the cases registered nation-wide. Also, 80% of the total cases nation-wide were originated in the poorest urban areas and 14% in rural areas. Women aging 18 years and 35 years are the most affected.
44.7% of the women that made an statement are unemployed. 53.9% of them work at home and 10.5% are students.
78.2% of women who suffered domestic violence have a stable relationship (not necessarily married), and 9.5% have no relationship. From the persons who attack women 85.3% is male. 74.5% of them are the couple. In the case of the mature women (60 years old and more), aggressions by sons or daughters represent 49.4%, and attacks by the couple represents 27.7%.
33.1% of women identify like the cause of aggression jealousy and distrust from the couple. 28% of them identify economic difficulties as the cause of the aggression.
The Peruvian state faces this problem using the following legal instruments:
- Law N° 26260 "Law of Protection Against the Domestic Violence."
- Regulation of the Law of Protection Against the Domestic Violence.
- Law N° 26788 (that modifies the Penal Code)
- Law N° 26842, Law for Health.
- Law N° 27016 (modifies the Law 26260)
- Law N° 27115 (Law that establishes Penal Action in the Crimes against Sexual Freedom.
- Decree N° 017-2001-PROMUDEH (National Plan Against the Violence on Woman 2002-2007). It creates a task force involving members of the society and the Peruvian State.